If you are studying for the PMP test, you will notice numerous materials accessible for PMP exam preparation. PMP study guides, PMP test questions, and a PMP formula sheet are all available. PMP flashcards are also an invaluable resource for PMP preparation.

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PMP® Flashcard — Glossary A – D


Accept – [Project Risk Management] one of the risk response techniques for threats/opportunities in which the risk is accepted as is with no risk mitigation measures in place, and the risk is only dealt with if it occurs, either actively or passively.

Acceptance Criteria – [Project Quality Management] the deliverables (e.g., products, services, or capabilities) that the client/customer accepts as meeting the acceptance criteria.

Accepted Deliverables – [Project Quality Management] deliverables (e.g., products, services, or capabilities) that the client/customer has accepted based on their compliance with the acceptance criteria.

Accommodation – [Project Scope Management] both parties to a conflict attempt to establish the situation of agreement and minimize disagreements.

Accuracy – [Project Quality Management] term that refers to the degree of correctness.

Achievement Theory – [Project Human Resource Management] a motivational theory that asserts that individuals are driven by achievement, power, or affiliation.

Acquire Project Team – [Project Resource Management] the process of acquiring team members who possess the necessary competencies to finish the project successfully.

Activity – [Project Schedule Management] the job package is split into activities. Each activity must be specified in terms of duration.

Activity Attributes – [Project Schedule Management] a document that contains additional information about the activities listed in the activity list; this information includes the activity’s identifier, description, constraints, assumptions, predecessor and successor activities, resources, and responsible parties.

Activity Identifier – [Project Schedule Management] one of the activity properties used to identify activity uniquely for sequencing and tracking.

Activity Duration – [Project Schedule Management] the amount of time required to complete a scheduled activity between the start and end dates.

Activity List – [Project Schedule Management] a document that lists all of the project’s activities together with their associated identifiers and brief descriptions.

Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) – [Project Schedule Management] a diagramming technique for sequencing activities by depicting them as arrows and indicating dependencies between the arrows and nodes.

Activity-on-Node (AON) – [Project Schedule Management] a diagramming technique for sequencing activities by grouping them into nodes and connecting them with arrows to indicate relationships.

Actual Cost (AC) – [Project Cost Management] the amount of money/cost spent to date on project work.

Adaptive Life Cycle – [Project Integration Management] an Agile project management methodology that enables rapid responsiveness to changes through short iterations.

Adjusting Leads and Lags – [Project Schedule Management] during a project’s execution, adjusting leads and lags is a technique for bringing delayed project activities into harmony with the project plan.

Affinity Diagrams – [Project Quality Management] a business tool used in brainstorming sessions to arrange ideas and data based on natural links.

Agreements – [Project Procurement Management] a written or verbal communication (e.g., a contract, a memo, an email, or a vocal arrangement…) indicating the project’s/preliminary work’s intentions.

Alternative Analysis – [Project Schedule Management] a technique for identifying and analyzing the various choices for efficiently completing the project’s work.

Alternatives Generation – [Project Scope Management] a strategy for generating and analyzing alternative methods for efficiently completing the project’s work.

Analogous Estimating – [Project Schedule/Cost Management] a technique for estimating the time and cost of activities/projects based on previously completed similar projects. Excellent for the first phase of a project, however, estimates are not always precise.

Analytical Techniques – [Project Risk/Procurement/Stakeholder Management] techniques for identifying potential risks/repercussions associated with project variables and interactions.

Apportioned Effort – [Project Schedule/Cost Management] A term used in earned value management (EVM) to describe schedule/cost performance that is proportional to the progress of another discrete effort (s).

Approved Change Request – [Project Integration Management] a change request approved for implementation after being submitted through the Perform Integrated Change Control process.

Arbitration – [Project Procurement Management] When a vendor and a customer disagree, arbitration is an effective method of resolving the conflict through the involvement of a neutral third party.

Assignable Cause – [Project Quality Management] is a distinct and particular cause of the control chart variance. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze and correct assignable reasons.

Attribute Sampling – [Project Quality Management] is a process for internal control that involves checking for a specific attribute (i.e., either pass or fail).

Avoid – [Project Risk Management] Utilize negative risks (i.e., threats) by adding plans to avoid/minimize risk events and their consequences.

Avoidance – [Project Scope Management] Both parties to a disagreement disregard the conflict, which is not seen as a suitable approach for resolving conflict.

Related: Free PMP Cheat Sheets and Formulas in 2021


Backlog – [Project Scope Management] a prioritized list of project tasks frequently used in Agile project management methodologies.

Backward Pass – [Project Scope Management] a technique for determining the late start and late finish dates for each activity in the activity schedule diagram in reverse order.

Additionally, see Critical Path Method (CPM)

Balanced Matrix is a matrix structure in which the project manager has the same budget and resource control as the functional manager.

Baseline – [Project Schedule/Cost Management] is the finalized version of the project plan (scope, cost, and schedule) used to compare actual work performance.

Basis of Estimates – further information defining the project’s estimations’ basis.

Benchmarking – [Project Quality Management] the process of comparing existing processes and procedures to those of comparable organizations to establish a baseline for performance improvement.

Bidder Conference – [Project Procurement Management] a meeting with all bidders to clarify contract criteria and guarantee that all bidders are on the same page.

Bottom-up Estimating – [Project Schedule/Cost Management] a precise but time-consuming estimating process that involves adding up each activity’s estimated costs/duration.

Budget – [Project Cost Management] the project’s projected expenses over a specific period.

Budget at Completion (BAC) – [Project Cost Management] A term frequently used in earned value management (EVM), it refers to the project’s entire cost at completion.

Buffer – [Project Schedule Management] adds time to activities’ duration to minimize the probability of missing activity completion dates.

Business Case – [Project Integration Management] used to determine the feasibility and viability of a project; frequently comprises a financial feasibility analysis, estimated budget, and project justifications.


Cause and Effect Diagram – (affectionately referred to as a fishbone or Ishikawa diagram) [Project Quality Management] a diagramming approach used to determine the Cause and effect of an issue.

Change Control Board (CCB) – [Project Integration Management] a committee of individuals charged with the responsibility of accepting or rejecting significant change requests (as defined in the Project Management Plan).

Change Log – [Project Integration Management] a list of all project modifications and their associated effects.

Change Request – [Project Integration Management] a formal document used to request changes to the project.

Claim – [Project Procurement Management] If a contract is not entirely performed, either party may seek compensation/make a claim.

Code of Accounts – [Project Scope Management] A numbered system used to identify WBS components.

Colocation – [Project Scope Management] Members of the team share a physical area to facilitate communication and information sharing.

Collaboration – [Project Scope Management] when both parties to a problem work together to find a mutually agreeable solution, is frequently regarded as the best strategy for resolving conflict.

Communication Channels – [Project Communication Management] the number of communication channels between individuals involved in a project, calculated using the formula: N (N-1) / 2, where N is the total number of participants.

Common Cause – [Project Quality Management] The control chart illustrates that the process operates within the control limits but not within the specification limitations, which are frequently normal and natural system changes.

Communication Methods – [Project Communication Management] communication techniques can be interactive, push-based, or pull-based.

Communication Models – [Project Communication Management] outlines how information is exchanged (e.g., Sender-Encode-Message-Decode-Receiver Model).

Communication Technology – [Project Communication Management] software and hardware components that facilitate communication.

Compromise – [Project Human Resource Management] an approach for resolving conflicts in which both parties make sacrifices.

Configuration Management System – [Project Quality Management] is a component of the project management information system that manages the assets of the project deliverables by recording their functional or physical attributes.

Conformance – [Project Quality Management] certifies that the results meet the specified quality standard.

Confrontation – [Project Human Resource Management] a technique for resolving disagreement via open dialogue to arrive at a collaborative and practical solution.

Limit any circumstances that place constraints on the project.

Contingency Plan – [Project Risk Management] a strategy outlining the steps to be taken in the event of documented hazards.

Contingency Reserve – [Project Cost/Schedule Management] the budget set aside to fund contingent reactions to identified risks (known unknown).

Control Accounts – [Project Scope Management] are strategically placed to group work breakdown structure (WBS) components to improve cost, scope, and/or schedule management for earned value management measurements.

Control Chart – [Project Quality Management] a statistical process tool for tracking the performance and stability of a process over time (whether the process is within control limits).

Control Limits – [Project Quality Management] the upper and lower limits on a control chart are used to determine if a process is under control while considering typical fluctuation.

Corrective Actions – [Project Quality Management] activities undertaken to bring the project’s performance into line with the objectives specified in the project plan.

Cost Aggregation – [Project Cost Management] the total estimated costs for all jobs contained inside a work package.

Cost Baseline – [Project Cost Management] reflects the budgeted amount of projected costs to be disbursed during the project’s length, excluding any management reserves. The cost baseline can be used to compare the project’s actual costs.

Cost of Quality (COQ) – [Project Quality Management] encompasses all expenses associated with compliance (quality assurance/control procedures) as well as costs related to nonconformance (rework).

Cost Performance Index (CPI) – [Project Cost Management] a cost-efficiency statistic for earned value management (EVM) projects (formula: CPI = EV / AC).

Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF) – [Project Procurement Management] a type of contract in which the buyer pays the seller for all permitted costs plus additional money granted for fulfilling the contract’s performance targets as established by the buyer.

Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) – [Project Procurement Management] a type of contract in which the buyer pays the seller all permitted costs in addition to a fixed amount of money as the seller profit.

Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) – [Project Procurement Management] a type of contract in which the buyer pays the seller all allowable expenses plus incentives and splits any unused funds if the contract amount is less than or greater than the contracted amount.

Cost Variance (CV) – [Project Cost Management] A cost variance metric used in earned value management (EVM) to indicate the difference between earned value and actual cost (formula: CV = EV – AC).

Cost-benefit Analysis – a financial analysis technique for estimating the project’s expenses and benefits, as well as its viability.

Cost Reimbursable Contract – [Project Procurement Management] a contract type in which the buyer bears all allowable costs and the seller earns additional money for meeting contract conditions; the buyer bears the majority of the risk.

Crashing – [Project Schedule Management] a technique for compressing the schedule by adding additional resources.

Criteria – [Project Quality Management] variables used to analyze and determine when deliverables meet project specifications.

Critical Chain Method (CCM) – [Project Schedule Management] a technique for increasing the accuracy of project schedules by accounting for resource constraints and uncertainty.

Critical Path Activity – [Project Schedule Management] all activities on a project’s critical path (using Critical Path Method).

Critical Path Method (CPM) – [Project Schedule Management] a technique for calculating the project’s schedule by considering the sequence of activities associated with the longest work path.

Customer – [Project Stakeholder Management] whoever requests and/or pays for the project/deliverables.


Data Date – the time the data is collected.

Decision Tree Analysis – [Project Risk Management] a diagramming technique that assists in visualizing the Expected Monetary Value (EMV) of various possibilities to aid in decision-making.

Decomposition – [Project Scope Management] The project’s scope is broken down into smaller portions to allow for a more accurate assessment.

Defect Repair – [Project Cost Management] the corrective action required when deliveries do not match specifications.

Deliverable – [Project Scope Management] a verified product, service, outcome, or capability created by a process, phase, or project.

Delphi Technique – questionnaires are distributed anonymously among subject matter experts (SME) and recirculated until consensus is obtained.

Dependency – [Project Schedule Management] an activity’s execution/completion may be contingent upon the completion of other activities; this dependency may be mandated, discretionary, external, or internal.

Design of Experiments (DOE) – [Project Quality Management] a statistical technique that compares multiple variables simultaneously to determine the lowest quality cost.

Diagramming Techniques – a variety of techniques for visually displaying data and relationships.

Dictatorship – [Project Human Resource Management] a group decision-making technique in which the leader directs the process, which works best when there are significant uncertainties.

Discounted Cash Flow – [Project Cost Management] a technique for comparing the value of a project’s future cash flows to the current worth of the dollar while accounting for inflation.

Discrete Effort – [Project Cost/Schedule Management] used in earned value management (EVM) to compare work performance to explicit work activities that contribute to the project’s completion.

See also Apportioned Effort.

Discretionary Dependency – [Project Schedule Management] (a.k.a. preferred logic) two tasks are regarded to be optimal if performed in sequence; nevertheless, the line can be adjusted if necessary.

Duration – [Project Schedule Management] the time interval between the commencement and completion of a scheduled activity; frequently stated on workdays.


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Last modified: 2021-07-01



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